Flag of the National Liberation Committee The movement was initially composed of various independently operating groups led by members of political parties previously outlawed by the Fascist regime or by former officers of the Royal Italian Army.
Based on existing organizations, such as the churches, students, communists and doctors professional resistance Armed raids on distribution offices to get food coupons or various documents such as Ausweise or on birth registry offices to get rid of information about Jews and others to whom the Nazis paid special attention temporary liberation of areas, such as in YugoslaviaParisand northern Italyoccasionally in cooperation with the Allied forces uprisings such as in Warsaw in andand in extermination camps such as in Sobibor in and Auschwitz in continuing battle and guerrilla warfaresuch as the partisans in the USSR and Yugoslavia and the Maquis in France Espionageincluding sending reports of military importance e.
Illegal press to counter Nazi propaganda Anti-Nazi propaganda including movies for example anti-Nazi color film Calling Mr. Smith about current Nazi crimes in German-occupied Poland. Covert listening to BBC broadcasts for news bulletins and coded messages Political resistance to prepare for the reorganization after the war Helping people to go into hiding e.
Helping Allied military personnel caught behind Axis lines Helping POWs with illegal supplies, breakouts, communication, etc. As time progressed, resistance forces grew in size and number.
To counter this threat, the German authorities formed a special 1, man-strong anti-partisan unit of combined SS -Wehrmacht forces, including a Panzer group.
Anti-Soviet Poles, most of them teenagers from local high schools, stormed the local Red Army barracks and a prison, in order to release Polish soldiers kept there.
Among the many activities of Polish resistance and Polish people one was helping endangered Jews. This in turn gave the French Resistance new people to incorporate into their political structures. Following Cabinet approval, it was officially formed by Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton on 22 Julyto develop a spirit of resistance in the occupied countries and to prepare a fifth column of resistance fighters to engage in open opposition to the occupiers at such time that the United Kingdom was able to return to the continent.
Whereas the SIS was primarily involved in espionagethe SOE and the resistance fighters were geared toward reconnaissance of German defenses and sabotage.
In England the SOE was also involved in the formation of the Auxiliary Unitsa top secret stay-behind resistance organisation which would have been activated in the event of a German invasion of Britain. After the war, the organisation was officially dissolved on 15 January Several hundreds of thousands of people participated in the strike.
The strike was put down by the Nazis and some participants were executed. These reports were the first information about the Holocaust and the principal source of intelligence on Auschwitz for the Western Allies.
Its armed wing concluded two armed forces; Athanasios Diakos with armed action in Kroussiawith Christodoulos Moschos captain "Petros" as leader, and Odysseas Androutsos with armed action in Visaltiawith Athanasios Genios captain "Lassanis" as leader. It was first armed Anti-Fascist partisan detachment in Croatia.
Communist-initiated uprising against Axis started in Serbia on July 7, Organized as a military mini-state it existed throughout the autumn of in the western part of Serbia. The information gathered by the Agency was used by the Americans and British in planning the amphibious November Operation Torch   landings in North Africa.
It was the first organized armed uprising in then occupied Europe, and involved 32, people. Most of Montenegro was quickly liberated, except major cities where Italian forces were well fortified.
On 12 August — after a major Italian offensive involving 5 divisions and 30, soldiers — the uprising collapsed as units were disintegrating; poor leadership occurred as well as collaboration. The final toll of July 13 uprising in Montenegro was dead, wounded and captured Italians and 72 dead and 53 wounded Montenegrins.
Several Germans were killed and wounded; 93 were captured. On 11 Octoberin Bulgarian-occupied Prilep, Macedonians attacked post of the Bulgarian occupation police, which was the start of Macedonian resistance against the fascists who occupied Macedonia: Germans, Italians, Bulgarians and Albanians.
A national general strike, originating mainly in Wiltz, paralysed the country and forced the occupying German authorities to respond violently by sentencing 21 strikers to death.
Poland was the only country in occupied Europe where there existed such a dedicated secret organization. It targeted rail infrastructure near Warsaw. Similar operations aimed at disrupting German transport and communication in occupied Poland occurred in the coming months and years.
It targeted railroads, bridges and supply depots, primarily near transport hubs such as Warsaw and Lublin. On 25 November, Greek guerrillas with the help of twelve British saboteurs  carried out a successful operation which disrupted the German ammunition transportation to the German Africa Corps under Rommel —the destruction of Gorgopotamos bridge Operation Harling.
They drove out the main gate in a stolen Rudolf Hoss automobile Steyr with a smuggled report from Witold Pilecki about the Holocaust. The Germans never recaptured any of them.Claudio Pavone was born in Rome in and, as a young man, took an active part in the Resistance movement.
A renowned historian, he worked in the National Arcives and was Professor of Contemporary History at the University of Pisa/5(4). CRITIQUE OF MODERN BARBARISM Essays on fascism, anti-Semitism and the use of history By Enzo Traverso New and enlarged edition.
Enzo Traverso is an Italian historian who has written on issues relating to the Holocaust and srmvision.com worked at the IIRE from to The Italian resistance movement (Italian: Resistenza italiana or just Resistenza) comprised different ideological and political groups.
Opposing the occupying German forces and the Italian Fascist puppet regime of the Italian Social Republic during the later years of the war they were known as the Italian resistance and Italian partisans.
The Italian resistance movement (Italian: Resistenza italiana or just la Resistenza) is an umbrella term for Italian resistance groups that, during World War II, opposed the occupying German forces as well as the Italian Fascists and the puppet regime of the Italian Fascist Italian Social Republic, a puppet state of the occupying Nazi Germans.
The movement rose to prominence among Italians of. Italian liberation for the partisans meant a democratic republic—not a return to a country ruled, often ineptly, by a king.
The partisans had proved extremely effective in aiding the Allies; by the summer of , resistance fighters had immobilized eight of the 26 German divisions in northern Italy.
Claudio Pavone’s classic history rescued the real history of the Italian resistance, and is still an essential counter to revisionist narratives, argues David Shonfield Claudio Pavone, A Civil War: A History of the Italian Resistance, ed. with introduction by Stanislao Pugliese, trans.