Equivocation — the misleading use of a term with more than one meaning by glossing over which meaning is intended at a particular time. The arguer advances the controversial position, but when challenged, they insist that they are only advancing the more modest position.
The Socratic method is one of the most famous, least used, and least understood teaching and conversation practices.
His father was Sophroniscusa stone cutter, and his mother was Phaenaretea midwife. Socrates believed that the highest benefit of his art was to help people do their own thinking in a way that lead to the birth of their own new ideas. A new idea, once it was delivered through Socrates philosophical midwife practice of limiting himself to asking questions, was then examined to determine if the idea is a "false phantom or an instinct with life and truth" Theaetetus.
This examination involved Socrates asking more questions, which help the respondents think critically about their previous answers. The search for a definition focused on the true nature of the subject under question and not just on how the word is used correctly in a sentence.
Socrates style of conversation involved his own denial of knowledge Socratic irony. In these conversations, Socrates became the student and made those he questioned the teacher.
Socrates was not interested in the talk of others. He only wanted to focus on the respondents own thinking. Vlastos and Graham offer an important insight into the value of the Socratic method: Because it makes moral inquiry a common human enterprise, open to everyone.
Its practice calls for no adherence to a philosophical system, or mastery of a specialized technique, or acquisition of a technical vocabulary. It calls for common sense and common speech.
This seems to be contradicted by the quote from Vlastos and Graham.
It is the purpose of the research on this website to make the powerful truth of the Vlastos and Graham quote a commonly accessible, living reality for anyone wanting to actually use the Socratic method. If actually using the Socratic method is your interest, the fastest way to access the ideas on this website is my essay " How to Use the Socratic Method " at the top of this page.
That essay serves as a conceptual site map to over pages of my writing on this topic. Socratic Method Definitions What is the Socratic method? There are many styles of question oriented dialogue that claim the name Socratic method. However, just asking a lot of questions does not automatically constitute a use of the Socratic method.
Even in the dialogues of Plato, which are the most significant and detailed historical references to Socrates, there is not just one Socratic method. The exact style and methodology of the Platonic Socrates changes significantly throughout the dialogues.
In these dialogues, Socrates claims to have no knowledge of even the most fundamental principles, such as justice, holiness, friendship or virtue.
In the Socratic dialogues, Socrates only wants short answers that address very specific points and refuses to move on to more advanced or complicated topics until an adequate understanding of basic principles is achieved. This means that the conversation is often stuck in the attempt to answer what appears to be an unanswerable basic question.
In the dialogues of Plato, the portrayal of Socrates and his method were diverse and ranged from the portrait of Socrates in the early dialogues to a richer diversity of conversational styles and ideas in latter dialogues.
This diversity in the dialogues was so great that Plato even decided to drop both Socrates and his method in some of his writing. Socrates and his method are most vividly seen in the early and middle dialogues. A Definition of the Classic Socratic Method: The Modern Socratic method is a process of questioning used to successfully lead a person to knowledge through small steps.
This knowledge can be specific data, training in approaches to problem solving, or leading one to embrace a specific belief. The type of knowledge is not as important as the fact that, with the Modern Socratic method, the knowledge gained is specifically anticipated by the Socratic questioner.
This stands in contrast to the Classic Socratic method in which the actual outcomes are unknown by all parties. The modern style is not deconstructive, but constructive. This is the most widely used style today because it is the easiest to employ. It is much easier to lead a person, by baby steps, to specific knowledge through a series of questions than it is to force a person to abandon a cherished idea and rethink an important or controversial issue just by asking creative questions.
The Modern Socratic method is not called modern because it was invented recently, but because it is the most popular usage in modern times.
The Modern Socratic method has historical precedent in the dialogues of Plato. The most famous example is the geometry experiment with the slave boy in a dialogue called Meno.A fallacy in critical thinking is a failure of the the premisses of an argument to adequately support its conclusion.
Fallacies can be formal or informal. Start studying Critical and Creative Thinking Fallacies. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Critical Thinking 6: Fallacies and Cognitive Biases February 9, Critical Thinking, Psychology cognitive biases, fallacies Robert M Ellis There are a great many different fallacies and a great many different cognitive biases: probably enough to keep me going for years if I was to discuss one each week on this blog series.
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Technological, medical, economic and social progress are part of modern life. New, faster, smaller, cheaper . The Socratic Method Research Portal is the product of over 30 years of research and experimentation with the Socratic method.