Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Since then, many universities have established centres for research into the sociology of sports. Prominent among the topics investigated by sports sociologists are socialization into and through sports; sports and national identity; globalization and sports processes; elite sports systems; labour migration and elite sports; mass media and the rise of professional sports; commercialization of sports; violence and sports; gender and sports; race, ethnicityand sports; and human performance and the use of drugs. Socialization into and through sports Several questions are central to understanding the socialization into sports.
History of sociology Notions of society and the state of nature have existed for centuries.
Socialization is thus both a cause and an effect of association. Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development Lawrence Kohlberg studied moral reasoning and developed a theory of how individuals reason situations as right from wrong.
The first stage is the pre-conventional stage, where a person typically children experience the world in terms of pain and pleasure, with their moral decisions solely reflecting this experience.
Second, the conventional stage typical for adolescents and adults is characterized by an acceptance of society's conventions concerning right and wrong, even when there are no consequences for obedience or disobedience. Finally, the post-conventional stage more rarely achieved occurs if a person moves beyond society's norms to consider abstract ethical principles when making moral decisions.
Erikson's stages of psychosocial development Erik H. Erikson — explained the challenges throughout the life course. The first stage in the life course is infancy, where babies learn trust and mistrust.
The second stage is toddlerhood where children around the age of two struggle with the challenge of autonomy versus doubt. In stage three, preschool, children struggle to understand the difference between initiative and guilt.
Stage four, pre-adolescence, children learn about industriousness and inferiority. In the fifth stage called adolescence, teenagers experience the challenge of gaining identity versus confusion. The sixth stage, young adulthood, is when young people gain insight to life when dealing with the challenge of intimacy and isolation.
In stage seven, or middle adulthood, people experience the challenge of trying to make a difference versus self-absorption. In the final stage, stage eight or old age, people are still learning about the challenge of integrity and despair. Reciprocal socialization George Herbert Mead — developed a theory of social behaviorism to explain how social experience develops an individual's self-concept.
Mead's central concept is the self: It is composed of self-awareness and self-image. Mead claimed that the self is not there at birth, rather, it is developed with social experience.
Since social experience is the exchange of symbols, people tend to find meaning in every action.
Seeking meaning leads us to imagine the intention of others. Understanding intention requires imagining the situation from the others' point of view. In effect, others are a mirror in which we can see ourselves.This link between sports, national culture, and identity can be extended further.
Some sports are seen to encompass all the qualities of national character.
In the value system of upper-class Englishmen, for example, cricket embodies the qualities of fair play, valour, graceful conduct, and steadfastness in the face of adversity. Being isolated within a sport because of gender is the biggest cost that an athlete has to pay.
Isolation is a difficult hurdle to overcome. In Conclusion: Looking at sports today, it is obvious that, even though changes still need ot be made within society, progress has been made, and the line between the genders is becoming more and more. relationships: the link between child gender and the three aspects of parent social- ization, and the link between the three aspects of parent socialization and children’s outcomes (i.e., perceived competence, value, and participation).
Sport socialization happened at an early age for most of the players, but two different subgroups seem to emerge vis-à-vis rugby socialization: members of the second underwent socialization through their family for many years, while members of the other were not as exposed to rugby.
Identity socialization and construction within the . Early Childhood Gender Socialization (R&C, ch. 4, Coltrane, ch. 5) Three types of theories explain gender socialization: psychoanalytic, social learning and cognitive developmental.
A significant sport development and gender barrier was recently broken through the sport of tennis where female tennis players achieved the same competition pay as the male athletes. The All England Lawn Tennis Chairman Phillip () stated that the time was right to bring this subject to a logical conclusion and eliminate the difference.